ex Blume Gnetum silvestris Brongn. Containing group: Gnetales. However, it has been noted that the vine grows best in well-shaded areas similar to that of a forest, as too much sunlight can burn the vine and produce substandard leaves for selling purposes. In the Central African Republic, Gabon, Congo, DR of Congo and Angola, the two species are locally called koko. Gnetum gnemon is rated as Least Concerned (LC) according to IUCN Red List criteria and has received a EDGE score of -7.69, which places it in position 787 on the EDGE Gymnosperm list. Healthy leaves with a thick wax-like texture are preferred in markets and will receive the highest value; Gnetum africanum remains untaxed in local markets. [10] While Gnetum africanum is still largely considered a wild vegetable, if cultivated as a domesticated crop it may save time for women who previously would search for it in the forests.[8]. Linda Bonen, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2012. Primarily, Gnetum africanum leaves are used as a vegetable for soups and stews, commonly called eru soup or afang soup. [8] This is likely due to the fact that the vine is traditionally a wild vegetable. Friedman, W. E. and J. S. Carmichael. In Gnetaceae …Gnetophyta), composed of one genus, Gnetum, with 30 or more species. Bot. Overexploitation is partly caused by unsustainable forest clearing practices throughout regions in Africa.[12]. NPO法人JASMELINDO. [9] As Gnetum africanum is a wild forest vine, it tends to grow best in shaded areas. The species is … In coughs, colds, and chronic airway obstructive conditions, epheda has always been the go to herb. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon), also known as Daeking Tree, Gnemon Tree, Joint-Fir Spinach, Paddy Oats, Melinjo Nut, Meminjau, Bago, Belinjo and Padi oats is a species of tree in the family Gnetaceae. [3] There are about 40 species in one genus, Gnetum, which is the sole species in Gnetaceae Blume 1833, the sole family in Gnetales Blume ex von Martius 1835. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: Gnetophyta – Mormon tea and other gnetophytes Class How the fruit looks like after the skin is removed. Species of Gnetaceae contained within The Plant List belong to 1 plant genera. • GENUS GNETUM (noun) The noun GENUS GNETUM has 1 sense:. G. camporum 2. 8586 File Type IMAGE File Class PHOTO Download ~400x400 | Original Size: General Creation Date 2002-11-07 Scientific Name Gnetum leyboldii var woodsonianum G. nodiflorum 5. Melinjo belongs to Gnetum family plant which originated from Indonesia. Statistics. [10] Since the leaves may be consumed as a vegetable and the root tuber as a famine food, it may also increase overall food security of rural households. Science, 326 (5954), 840-847. and Siong, K.H., "The Nutritional Value of Indigenous Fruits and Vegetables in Sarawak,"Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. It has also been found that the levels of iodine are also high in the vine. General Information Gnetum africanum is an evergreen climbing shrub producing twining, woody stems that can be 12 metres or more long from a tuberous rootstock The vine grows on trees in the wild. [4][5][6], Gnetum africanum has numerous common names and is grown in various countries across Africa, including: Cameroon (Eru, okok, m’fumbua, or fumbua), Angola (KoKo), Nigeria (ukase or afang), Gabon (KoKo), Central African Republic (KoKo), Congo (KoKo), and the Democratic Republic of Congo (m’fumbua or fumbua). File Metadata File Reference No. Though bearing leaves, the genus Gnetum are gymnosperms, related to pine and other conifers. Ephedra is an airway passage opener extraoidinaire. [10], Gnetum africanum is found mainly in the humid tropical forest regions of Central African Republic, Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola. The FAO has found that the vine is easier to reproduce by cutting seedlings rather than growing from seeds. [10] Cutting seedlings is one practical alternative in harvesting the vine as opposed to destroying the entire crop by uprooting it. G. gnemon 3. Gnemon and are larger, with larger fruits Gnetum africanum depletion is largely associated with tree felling and overexploitative forestry practices. 2006. Both Gnetum species have significant value to many forest-based communities and have a number of vernacular and trade names. Garden Location: Orchid Display House Gnetum gnemon Fibre levels average approximately 33.4 g/100 g of dried Gnetum africanum leaves, while recommended daily intake of fibre is 30 g. Gnetum africanum has been noted as an anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant. [3] Specifically, near Lekie, Cameroon, CIFOR has been helping the women remove an invasive plant species (kodengui), and replacing it with Gnetum africanum, in order to discourage regrowth of the invasive species and utilize the area for a more sustainable resource. It has also been noted that the vine does not grow particularly well in very moist conditions such as marshes and swamps. Bowe, L. Michelle, Gwénaële Coat, and Claude W. dePamphilis. Dendrobium spectabile. 3.3.2 Plant-to-plant horizontal transfer of introns. 1805. [7], Gnetum africanum is a good source of protein and is strong in essential and non-essential amino acids. Gnetum urens. Gnetum is a family of gymnosperms, the sole genus in the family Gnetaceae and order Gnetales. [8], Gnetum africanum has been found to be negatively impacted if grown on or next to termite infected wood or trees. [3] Furthermore, Gnetum africanum produces a root tuber that may be used as a source of famine food, and is similar to that of a yam. Molecular phylogenies based on nuclear and plastid sequences from most of the species indicate hybridization among some of the Southeast A… Scientific names: Gnetum gnemon: Gnetum acutatum Gnetum gnemon: Gnetum gnemon(4) Gnetum gnemon: Gnetum gnenum Gnetum gnemon: Gnetum vinosum Family: Gnetum spp: Gnetaceae fml The Buah Melinja is also known as Buah Cokok. It has a Evolutionary Distinctiveness of 9.11, ranked 307. in Duperr., Voy. Also known as Padi or paddy oats, this small to medium sized tree grows upto 15-20 m tall, features big size leaves that is 8�20 cm long and 3�10 cm broad. The tree as well as the fruit is popular by different names in different languages such as Haitian (Zibline), Tonga (Tapanima), Khmer (Spu), Laotian (Nak Fuang), Polish (Karambola) and others. The Plant List includes 119 scientific plant names of species rank for the family Gnetaceae. Other Names for Gnetum. To harvest the leaves, the vine is often just yanked down off the tree, lea 8, no. Scientific name - Gnetum gnemon Inhabitant to Southeast Asia and the western Pacific Ocean islands, Gnetum gnemon is a species of gnemon L. � Buko from the family of Gnetaceae. Gnetum venosum. There is an interesting case in the gymnosperm, Gnetum gnemonoides, where an extra copy of nad1 intron 2 and flanking exons is present in its mitochondrial genome and it appears to be of a flowering plant (asterid) origin (Won & Renner, 2003). They are tropical evergreen trees, shrubs and lianas. Gnetum ula Brongn. This small­ to medium­size tree up to 15 m (50 ft) in height is native to Indo­Malaya and perhaps Melanesia. [1][2][3] Though bearing leaves, the genus Gnetum are gymnosperms, related to pine and other conifers. [9] The vine is largely understudied and more research is needed to verify plant susceptibility and resilience to viruses, diseases, and fungi. [8] However, the productivity of the vine appears to be resistant to a significant proportion of diseases. Specifically, it has been suggested that the vine could be used as a complementary crop for rubber and oil trees. The shade tolerant vine does not grow well in direct sunlight and can be found climbing on middle and under-story trees. Statistics are at the end of the page. Gnetum africanum (eru or African jointfir) is a vine gymnosperm species found natively throughout tropical Africa. The gymnosperm division Gnetophyta has a small number of species (65) found within three genera: Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia. Gnetum silvestris Rumph. [7], Gnetum africanum - leaves as sold and as typically cut for recipes. The content of amino acids found in Gnetum africanum is similar to recommended levels by the FAO. Plants in Gnetum are evergreen. Dictionary entry overview: What does genus Gnetum mean? Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. 1. type genus of the Gnetaceae; small trees or shrubs usually with climbing jointed stems and terminal spikes of flowers with orange-red seeds clustered in rough cones Familiarity information: GENUS GNETUM used as a noun is very rare. Aug 8, 2003 : Integrated Taxonomic Information System : ... Gnetum africanum Welw. 2000. It has been found in primary and secondary semi-deciduous humid forests, both in dense and sunny transitional savannah locations, ranging from sea-level to 1200 meter altitude. G. paniculatum 6. The stem of the plant may also be eaten for medicinal purposes, including the reduction of pain during childbirth. [8] It is a perennial that grows approximately 10 metres long, with thick papery-like leaves growing in groups of three. G. leyboldii 4. Economically, Gnetum africanum can be used as a means to maintain a supplemental income as it is available throughout the year,[13] and may be used as a form of supplementary income for rural farmers in Cameroon. The genus has been subdivided by Markgraf (1930, in Carlquist 1996b) as follows: In this treatment, there are descriptions for six species: 1. The seeds of the vine resemble a fleshy fruit, sized 10–15 mm × 4–8 mm, and are red-orange in colour when fully ripe. The plant exists in several varieties, in particular there is the tree form (var. [1][11], This vine will grow in all seasons and typically spreads along forest floors. Gnemon) and three shrub forms (vars., brunonianum, griffithii and tenerum) The cultivated trees belong to Gnetum gnemon var. They are tropical evergreen trees, shrubs and lianas. Subsistence agriculturalists in Cameroon may be able to improve their nutritional, environmental, social, and economic situations by growing this vine. Gnetum africanum (eru or African jointfir) is a vine gymnosperm species found natively throughout tropical Africa. 4: 477. Many of the species from the genus Ephedra are shrubs that can be found in desert regions of the Americas or in the high, cool regions of the Himalayan mountains in India. [2] Molecular phylogenies based on nuclear and plastid sequences from most of the species indicate hybridization among some of the Southeast Asian species. Gnetum is a group of plants. The Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) has been working with women to create sustainable cultivation practices of Gnetum africanum, as well as forest restoration techniques. Thoa edulis Willd., Sp. [6], genus of tropical gymnosperms in the family Gnetaceae. Gnetum africanum is most significantly cultivated by rural women farmers, constituting approximately 80% of the overall trade of this crop. 2002. 1998. It is the only group of plants found in Gnetaceae. References. [7], Gnetum africanum is traditionally a wild vine and is considered to be a wild vegetable. [10] There are currently no gene banks for Gnetum africanum, but approximately 19 varieties of the species have been planted in Cameroon’s Limbe Botanic Garden to begin a gene bank. Carambola, which is scientifically known as Averrhoa carambola, is a fruit bearing tree of the family Oxalidaceae and genus Averrhoa. Some species have been proposed to have been the first plants to be insect-pollinated as their fossils occur in association with extinct pollinating scorpionflies. Annotations are currently disabled: Record Inserted. Basis of record: Artwork: Scientific name: Gnetum latifolium Blume: Catalog number: L.2096956: Collection code: Icones: Family: Gnetaceae: Genus: Gnetum: Specific epithet Scientific Name Bactrocera distincta, Bactrocera kirki, Bactrocera gnetum,Bactrocera obscura,Bactrocera passiflorae,Bactroceraspecies near passiflorae, and Bactrocera xanthodes. It will grow in poor soils, even sandy or clay soils, but it prefers to grow in shaded locations. Sustainable cultivation practices, such as harvesting the leaves regularly rather than uprooting the whole vine, allows for a more viable supplementary income throughout the year. They are gymnosperms, meaning their seeds are "naked" and not covered unlike flowering plants. Since Gnetum africanum grows best in shaded areas it could be used as a complementary crop on tree farms. Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies. [9] Finally, the seeds of the vine may also be eaten cooked. Gnetum africanum has also been referred to as a form of ‘wild spinach’ in English. It is high in glutamic acid, leucine, and aspartic acid, with low levels of histidine, and cysteine, while there appears to be trace amounts of tryptophan in the plant. Won H, Renner SS: The internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA in the gymnosperm, Won, H., and S. S. Renner. The genus Gnetum is in the family Gnetaceae in the major group Gymnosperms (Conifers, cycads and allies). Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers, Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: Extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales' closest relatives are conifers, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes, "Domestication of Non Timber Forest Products", Centre for Nursery Development and Eru Propagation, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gnetum_africanum&oldid=973793170, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 August 2020, at 07:00. They are used as a potherb. Gnetum definition is - a genus (the type of the family Gnetaceae) of gymnospermous, dioecious, tropical shrubs, small trees, or woody vines having compound male and female strobili often arranged in clusters and seeds resembling drupes. G. urens Treatments have not yet been prepared for the following species, discussed in the "Distribution and Ecology" and "Remark… Unlike other gymnosperms, they possess vessel elements in the xylem. Ren D, Labandeira CC, Santiago-Blay JA, Rasnitsyn A, Shih CK, Bashkuev A, Logan MA, Hotton CL, Dilcher D. (2009). Dating dispersal and radiation in the gymnosperm, Hoe, V.B. Gravels varieties, Sticky rice varieties and Varieties of … Melinjo is dioecious gymnosperm plant (has separated male and female reproduction organ), can reach height of 22 meters with conical trunk. [9], Gnetum africanum may also be known as G. africanum or G. buchholzianum, and are the only two vine species from the gnetum family. Some species have been proposed to have been the first plants to be insect-pollinated as their fossils occur in association with extinct pollinating scorpionflies. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: Gnetophyta – Mormon tea and other gnetophytes Class The plant has now been domesticated and grown for subsistence and commercial use among the Annang of Nigeria. Chaw, Shu-Miaw, Christopher L. Parkinson, Yuchang Cheng, Thomas M. Vincent, and Jeffrey D. Palmer. Species in Gnetum Scientific Name: Annotations. Soltis, Douglas E., Pamela S. Soltis and Michael J. Zanis. [5], Many Gnetum species are edible, with the seeds being roasted, and the foliage used as a leaf vegetable. Gnetum gnemon is a species of Gnetum native to southeast Asia and the western Pacific Ocean islands, from Mizoram and Assam in India, south and east through Indonesia and Malaysia to the Philippines and Fiji.Common names include gnemon, melinjo, belinjo, kuliat/culiat, bago, … Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. The leaves may grow approximately 8 cm long, and at maturity the vine will produce small cone-like reproductive structures. 12. There are 65 species in the genus Ephedra, 30 or more in Gnetum, but only one in Welwitschia. Gnetum africanum Welw. Scientific Name: Dendrobium spectabile Family: Orchidaceae Information: The grotesquely twisted and undulating flowers of Dendrobium spectabile never fail to provoke comments from visitors. Unlike other gymnosperms, they possess vessel elements in the xylem. But, its use as a recreation drug should not detract from its long history of a very useful herbal medicine. Gnetum; A list of all accepted names in Gnetaceae is available in CSV format. Pl. Homonyms Gnetum gnemon L. Common names Spanish joint-fir in English bago in language. A large plant, but easily grown given year-round warmth and moisture. Afang Leaves are leaves from a climbing vine in Africa. Heterochrony and developmental innovation: Evolution of female gametophyte ontogeny in Gnetum, a highly apomorphic seed plant. Nutrition can be improved by using the plant for medicinal purposes as well as through edible consumption. [10] The leaves of the vine are sold in markets throughout the year and may be used in soups and stews or eaten raw. Scientific Collections ... Gnetum gnemon Name Synonyms Gnetum polystachyum Reinw. The vine grows in two ways: through rhizomes, or through new shoots that grow where the stem has been cut. 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As Averrhoa carambola, is a family of gymnosperms, they possess vessel elements in family!: What does genus Gnetum is a family of gymnosperms, related pine... Very moist conditions such as marshes and swamps garden Location: Orchid Display House gnemon! To grow best in shaded locations, with thick papery-like leaves growing in groups of three House!